Articles

Practices of Participative Leadership in Relation to Professional Competency of Principals at Saudi Kindergartens.

Dr Nahla M. Gahwaji
Childhood Studies Dept., King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Online First: September 29, 2019
| Google Scholar
[1]
D. N. M. Gahwaji, “Practices of Participative Leadership in Relation to Professional Competency of Principals at Saudi Kindergartens. ”, sshj, vol. 3, no. 09, pp. 1513-1521, Sep. 2019.

Abstract

The research aimed to identify the extent of practicing participative leadership for the kindergarten principals from the teachers’ prospective, and how principals’ practices of participative leadership’s pattern contributes in determining the level of their professional competency. Also, this research aimed to identify variances amongst sample responses in accordance to the research variables (qualifications, educational background, and years of experience for principals). The statistical-descriptive approach is used, where a random sample of teachers at public kindergartens in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were adopted. A survey was sent to (5) teachers in each public kindergarten, which is equivalent to a total of (165) teachers representing (39%) of the population. However, the retrieved number of surveys was (120) teachers. The research gathered information through a survey, which consisted of two parts; the first part covers demographic data, and the second part covers two sections: 1) participative leadership divided into four dimensions (practice, decision-making, characteristics of participative managers, and human relations) which is consisted of (46) items, and 2) professional competency divided into four areas (planning and implementation, guidance, monitoring and evaluation, sustainable professional growth) which consisted of (24) items. The research results were as follow: The level of practicing participative leadership scored high in all dimensions with a mean of (4.19).  Similarly, the professional competency level of principals is high in all areas with a mean of (4.24).  While, there were significant differences at the level of practicing participative leadership dimensions and professional competency fields in accordance to the research variables, there were also a high correlation between the level of participative leadership and professional competency with a value of (0.923) at a significance of (0.05). The research recommended providing training and development programs in leadership generally and participative leadership particularly for kindergartens’ principals, likewise, incorporating participative leadership skills in the principal’s annual evaluation form. One of the contributions of the research is the list of professional competency areas (derived from the research tool) for the process of nominating kindergarten principal to raise the applicant' efficiency level. The research highlighted the importance of adopting an educational participative leadership program within the preparation programs for school leaders and teachers’ training programs.

References

Alexander N. & Phillip R. (2012). The role of participative leadership and trust-based mechanisms in eliciting intern performance: Evidence from China, Curtin Business School, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
Alghamdi, A, (2014). Participative leadership, strategic introduction to the development of public schools in Saudi Arabia, King Fahad national library, Riyadh. (Document in Arabic language).
Alghamdi, H. & Abduljawad, N., (2012). The evolution of the educational system in Saudi Arabia, education future publisher, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (Document in Arabic language).
Almalki, O. (2014). The practices of high school principals of leadership patterns from teachers’ perspectives in Riyadh, the International educational specialized journal, (4)8, 23-35. (Document in Arabic language).
Almehmadi, K. (2016). The level of practicing participative leadership and their relations to the self-esteem of administrators from supervisors’ perspectives, Master thesis, Education College, University of Um-Al-Qura, Makkah. (Document in Arabic language).
Almunai, M., (2007). Some challenges facing principals at elementary schools in Saudi Arabia, Education Journal, (17)1, 13-29. (Document in Arabic language).
Alotaibi, M. (2010). The struggles facing the kindergarten administration in Kuwait in relation to the principal efficiency, Master thesis, College of Educational Science, University of Middle East, Jordan. (Document in Arabic language).
Babak, N. (2012). The Impact of participative leadership on employee's motivation, job satisfaction and innovation, Master Thesis, Faculty of Business, the British university in Dubai.
Bush, T. & Glover, D. (2003). School Leadership: Concepts and Evidence, the National College for School Leadership, the University of Reading, UK.
Chrispeels, J. H., Burke, P. H., Johnson, P., & Daly, A. J. (2008). Aligning mental models of district and school leadership teams for reform coherence. Education and Urban Society, 40(730), 1-22. doi: 10.1177/0013124508319582
Elena, S., Usaci, D., Norel, M. & Vlad, C. (2012). Applied Managerial Strategies for Reducing Resistance to Change in Kindergartens, Social and Behavioral Sciences, (181).
Goddard, J. & Hart, A. (2007). School leadership and equity: Canadian elements. School Leadership and Management, (27)1: 7–20.
Gronn, P. (2000). Distributed properties–a new architecture for leadership. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, (28)3, 317–38.
Hamlin, R. (2007). Developing Effective Leadership Behaviours: The Value of Evidence-Based Management, Hampton Business School, University of Wolver.
Hargreaves, A. & Fink, D. (2006). Sustainable Leadership, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.
Krathwohl, D. (1998). Methods of educational and social science research: An integrated approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Longman Publishers.
Lance, A., Rayner, S., & Szwed, C. (2007). Challenging and changing role boundaries. In Modernising schools: People, learning and organizations, ed. G. Butt and H. Gunter, 47–60. London: Continuum.
Lauder, H., Brown, P., Dillabough, J. & Halsey, A. (2006). Introduction: The prospects for education: Individualization, globalization, and social change. In Education, globalization and social change, ed. H. Lauder, P. Brown, J. Dillabough, and A.H. Halsey, 1–70. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Leeman, Y. (2007). School leadership and equity: Dutch experiences. School Leadership and Management, (27)1, 51–63.
Mead, S. (2011). PreK-3rd: Principals as crucial leaders. Foundation for Child Development Policy to Action Brief. Retrieved from http://www.fcdus.org/sites/default/files/PreK-3rd Resources.pdf
Mead, S., & Guernsey, L. (2010). A next social contract for the primary years of education. Washington, DC: New America Foundation.
Ministry of Education - SA (2009). The administration guidelines of school system. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: MOE & AGFUND. (Document in Arabic language).
Ministry of Education – SA (2015). Kindergartens Programs, retrieved on 6/11/2018 from https://www.moe.gov.sa/ar/news/Pages/ryadatfalfr.aspx. (Document in Arabic language).
National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP). (2005). Leading early childhood learning communities: What principals should know and be able to do. Alexandria, VA
National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP). (2006). Principals lead the way for PK-3: Early investment, strong alignment, better results. Alexandria, VA.
National Staff Development Council. (2010) Professional development in the United States: Trends and challenges. Retrieved from http://www.aypf.org/documents/62609 NSDC Definition of Professional Development908.pdf
Neuman, W. L. (2006). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (6th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Owens, R., & Valesky, T. (2007) Organizational behavior in education: Adaptive Leadership and School Reform. Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc.
Rayner, S. (2009). Educational diversity and learning leadership: a proposition, some principles and a model of inclusive leadership, Educational Review, (61) 4, 433–447, DOI: 10.1080/00131910903404004
Rayner, S., Gunter, H., Thomas, H., Butt, G. & Lance, A. (2005). Transforming the school workforce: Remodelling experiences in the special school. Management in Education, (19)5, 22–8.
Sarafidou,J. & Chatziioannidis, G. (2013). Teacher Participation in decision making and its impact on school and teachers. International Journal of Educational Management, 27(2), 170-183.
Shah, S. (2006). Educational leadership: An Islamic perspective. British Educational Research Journal, (32)3, 363–85.
Simkins, T. (2005). Leadership in education: “What works” or “What makes sense”? Educational Management Administration and Leadership, (33)1, 9–26.
Sirisookslipa, S., Ariratanaa, W. & KeowNgang, T. (2014). The Impact of Leadership Styles of School Administrators on Affecting Teacher Effectiveness, Social and Behavioural Sciences, (186).
Published September 29, 2019
How to Cite
[1]
D. N. M. Gahwaji, “Practices of Participative Leadership in Relation to Professional Competency of Principals at Saudi Kindergartens. ”, sshj, vol. 3, no. 09, pp. 1513-1521, Sep. 2019.

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References

Alexander N. & Phillip R. (2012). The role of participative leadership and trust-based mechanisms in eliciting intern performance: Evidence from China, Curtin Business School, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
Alghamdi, A, (2014). Participative leadership, strategic introduction to the development of public schools in Saudi Arabia, King Fahad national library, Riyadh. (Document in Arabic language).
Alghamdi, H. & Abduljawad, N., (2012). The evolution of the educational system in Saudi Arabia, education future publisher, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (Document in Arabic language).
Almalki, O. (2014). The practices of high school principals of leadership patterns from teachers’ perspectives in Riyadh, the International educational specialized journal, (4)8, 23-35. (Document in Arabic language).
Almehmadi, K. (2016). The level of practicing participative leadership and their relations to the self-esteem of administrators from supervisors’ perspectives, Master thesis, Education College, University of Um-Al-Qura, Makkah. (Document in Arabic language).
Almunai, M., (2007). Some challenges facing principals at elementary schools in Saudi Arabia, Education Journal, (17)1, 13-29. (Document in Arabic language).
Alotaibi, M. (2010). The struggles facing the kindergarten administration in Kuwait in relation to the principal efficiency, Master thesis, College of Educational Science, University of Middle East, Jordan. (Document in Arabic language).
Babak, N. (2012). The Impact of participative leadership on employee's motivation, job satisfaction and innovation, Master Thesis, Faculty of Business, the British university in Dubai.
Bush, T. & Glover, D. (2003). School Leadership: Concepts and Evidence, the National College for School Leadership, the University of Reading, UK.
Chrispeels, J. H., Burke, P. H., Johnson, P., & Daly, A. J. (2008). Aligning mental models of district and school leadership teams for reform coherence. Education and Urban Society, 40(730), 1-22. doi: 10.1177/0013124508319582
Elena, S., Usaci, D., Norel, M. & Vlad, C. (2012). Applied Managerial Strategies for Reducing Resistance to Change in Kindergartens, Social and Behavioral Sciences, (181).
Goddard, J. & Hart, A. (2007). School leadership and equity: Canadian elements. School Leadership and Management, (27)1: 7–20.
Gronn, P. (2000). Distributed properties–a new architecture for leadership. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, (28)3, 317–38.
Hamlin, R. (2007). Developing Effective Leadership Behaviours: The Value of Evidence-Based Management, Hampton Business School, University of Wolver.
Hargreaves, A. & Fink, D. (2006). Sustainable Leadership, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.
Krathwohl, D. (1998). Methods of educational and social science research: An integrated approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Longman Publishers.
Lance, A., Rayner, S., & Szwed, C. (2007). Challenging and changing role boundaries. In Modernising schools: People, learning and organizations, ed. G. Butt and H. Gunter, 47–60. London: Continuum.
Lauder, H., Brown, P., Dillabough, J. & Halsey, A. (2006). Introduction: The prospects for education: Individualization, globalization, and social change. In Education, globalization and social change, ed. H. Lauder, P. Brown, J. Dillabough, and A.H. Halsey, 1–70. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Leeman, Y. (2007). School leadership and equity: Dutch experiences. School Leadership and Management, (27)1, 51–63.
Mead, S. (2011). PreK-3rd: Principals as crucial leaders. Foundation for Child Development Policy to Action Brief. Retrieved from http://www.fcdus.org/sites/default/files/PreK-3rd Resources.pdf
Mead, S., & Guernsey, L. (2010). A next social contract for the primary years of education. Washington, DC: New America Foundation.
Ministry of Education - SA (2009). The administration guidelines of school system. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: MOE & AGFUND. (Document in Arabic language).
Ministry of Education – SA (2015). Kindergartens Programs, retrieved on 6/11/2018 from https://www.moe.gov.sa/ar/news/Pages/ryadatfalfr.aspx. (Document in Arabic language).
National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP). (2005). Leading early childhood learning communities: What principals should know and be able to do. Alexandria, VA
National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP). (2006). Principals lead the way for PK-3: Early investment, strong alignment, better results. Alexandria, VA.
National Staff Development Council. (2010) Professional development in the United States: Trends and challenges. Retrieved from http://www.aypf.org/documents/62609 NSDC Definition of Professional Development908.pdf
Neuman, W. L. (2006). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (6th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Owens, R., & Valesky, T. (2007) Organizational behavior in education: Adaptive Leadership and School Reform. Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc.
Rayner, S. (2009). Educational diversity and learning leadership: a proposition, some principles and a model of inclusive leadership, Educational Review, (61) 4, 433–447, DOI: 10.1080/00131910903404004
Rayner, S., Gunter, H., Thomas, H., Butt, G. & Lance, A. (2005). Transforming the school workforce: Remodelling experiences in the special school. Management in Education, (19)5, 22–8.
Sarafidou,J. & Chatziioannidis, G. (2013). Teacher Participation in decision making and its impact on school and teachers. International Journal of Educational Management, 27(2), 170-183.
Shah, S. (2006). Educational leadership: An Islamic perspective. British Educational Research Journal, (32)3, 363–85.
Simkins, T. (2005). Leadership in education: “What works” or “What makes sense”? Educational Management Administration and Leadership, (33)1, 9–26.
Sirisookslipa, S., Ariratanaa, W. & KeowNgang, T. (2014). The Impact of Leadership Styles of School Administrators on Affecting Teacher Effectiveness, Social and Behavioural Sciences, (186).
Published September 29, 2019
How to Cite
[1]
D. N. M. Gahwaji, “Practices of Participative Leadership in Relation to Professional Competency of Principals at Saudi Kindergartens. ”, sshj, vol. 3, no. 09, pp. 1513-1521, Sep. 2019.
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Published September 29, 2019
How to Cite
[1]
D. N. M. Gahwaji, “Practices of Participative Leadership in Relation to Professional Competency of Principals at Saudi Kindergartens. ”, sshj, vol. 3, no. 09, pp. 1513-1521, Sep. 2019.

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Published September 29, 2019
How to Cite
[1]
D. N. M. Gahwaji, “Practices of Participative Leadership in Relation to Professional Competency of Principals at Saudi Kindergartens. ”, sshj, vol. 3, no. 09, pp. 1513-1521, Sep. 2019.

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  • Dr Nahla M. Gahwaji

  • Published September 29, 2019
    How to Cite
    [1]
    D. N. M. Gahwaji, “Practices of Participative Leadership in Relation to Professional Competency of Principals at Saudi Kindergartens. ”, sshj, vol. 3, no. 09, pp. 1513-1521, Sep. 2019.