Articles

The impulses and outlook of China, Russia and U.S. relation in the Horn of Africa; the case of Ethiopia

Nardos Hawaz Yeheys
PhD Student at Jilin University, School of International and Public Affairs Changchun, China
Online First: October 23, 2019
| Google Scholar
[1]
N. H. Yeheys, “The impulses and outlook of China, Russia and U.S. relation in the Horn of Africa; the case of Ethiopia”, sshj, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 1557-1570, Oct. 2019.

Abstract

Abstract

Ethiopia is one of the ancient states in the world having a history of more than three thousand years. The state had been in the de facto relationship with different states especially in Asia and Europe. China and India, however, had very old relation with Ethiopia, Chinas relation goes back to the Axumite kingdom.

Portugal, Turkey, England, and Russia had engaged in different occasional relation with Ethiopian empire from Europe.

Currently, Ethiopia has been strengthening its diplomatic relations with many countries around the world. The nature of the relationship depended on the national interest and global prospect. Thus, its relation with China will not as similar to the USA or Russia.

More recently, the influential computation between USA and China in global prospect had come up with a new thought to enable the states to see their relationship ties in a serious manner. Thus, Ethiopia's relationship with the USA and China had been stimulatingly rising and fall at different times. Yet, the world can witness, the progress of Ethiopia's economy and infrastructure development as the fruit of diplomatic ties with China. While, the USA of course, also want to rebuild its diplomatic relation, Nevertheless, Russia had begun to strengthen its relationship in parallel with Chinas demand.

This paper will highlight, the computation of U.S. and China’s engagement in Ethiopia and the rationale, the interest and the role of Russia in its perspectives.

References

References
• Alex De Waal, (2012) The theory and practice of Meles Zenawi, African Affairs, 112/446, 148–155
• Deborah Bräutigam Xiaoyang Tang, An Overview of Chinese Agricultural and Rural Engagement in Ethiopia, IFPRI Discussion Paper 01185 May 2012, Development Strategy and Governance Division, International Food Policy Research Institute.
• Dawit Alemu, Seth Cook and Qi Gubo(2015)Chinese Agricultural Expertise Support in Ethiopia: Approaches, Motives and Perspectives, China and Brazil in African Agriculture working paper series: http://www.future-agricultures.org/research/
• David H. Shinn, (2014) Ethiopia and China: Two Former Empires Connect in the 20th Century, Russian Academy of Sciences: Institute for African Studies,13th International Conference of Africanists
• Felix Müller, Model transfer in the making: changing development strategies of and expectations towards, the state in Ethiopia and Ghana, Working Papers of the Priority Programme 1448 of the German Research Foundation. 15, Leipzig and Halle 2015.
• Henok Tibebu,(2017) The Ethiopian Herald,Https://allafrica.com/stories/201702180271.
• James L. (1987) Time for action against Mengistu's Ethiopia, Report from the middle east; see more at https://www.heritage.org
• Jean Pierre Cabestan (2012) China and Ethiopia: Authoritarian affinities and economic cooperation, No.2012/4. China Perspectives.
• Johan Burger, The return of Russia to Africa, see more at https://www.herald.co.zw/the-return-of-russia-to-africa/
• Meles Zenawi, African development: Dead ends and new beginnings, unpublished Mater thesis draft
• Møller, B. (2009). The Horn of Africa and the US "War on Terror" with special Focus on Somalia. Aalborg: Institut for Historie, Internationale Studier on Samfundsforhold, Aalborg Universitet.
• Mehari Taddele Maru (2015), The secret to Ethiopia's counterterrorism success see more at https://www.aljazeera.com/
• Seifudein Adem, "China in Ethiopia: Diplomacy and Economics of Sino-Optimism," African Studies, Review, Vol. 55, No. 1, April 2012, pp. 143-160.
• Shel Arensen, (2009) Russian Officer with King Menelik's Army see more @ http://oldafricamagazine.com/russian-officer-with-kingmeneliks-army/
• Teshome A, Meles's development paradigm and its impact on economic transformation in Ethiopia
• Theodore M. Vestal (2009) The Lion of Judah at Camelot: U. S. Foreign Policy towards
Ethiopia as Reflected in the Second State Visit of Emperor Haylä Selassé I to the United States Proceedings of the 16th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, Trondheim
• Thomas P. Ofcansky and LaVerle Berry(eds) (1991) Ethiopia, a country study, Federal Research Division Library of Congress, Kessinger Publishing
• Thomas P. Ofcansky and LaVerle Berry(eds) (1991) Ethiopia, a country study, Federal Research Division Library of Congress, Kessinger Publishing
• The Reporter (2018) Ethiopia and Russia: kindred spirits, INTERVIEW with Vsevolod Tkachenko Ambassador of Russian Federation to Ethiopia, see more at https://www.thereporterethiopia.com/article/ethiopia-and-russia-kindred-spirits,Ethiopia and Russia: kindred spirits,7 April 2018
• Wolbert G.C. Smidt, (2001) Achinese in Nubian and Abyssinian Kingdom (8thcenntury)DOI; 10.4000/cy.33 http://journals.openedition.org/cy/33
• . Yeheys Nardos Hawaz (2018) China's development through the eyes of the other world: The Western and Africa, studying in China my perspective on reform and oping up international student forum
Report and press release
• Country Reports on Terrorism 2017, U.S. Department of State, see more at www.state.gov
• Cooperation with Ethiopia, The diplomatic relations between Russia and Ethiopia date back to 1898, http://roe.ru/eng/export/efiopiya/
• Ethiopia, COMMERCE, Treaty signed at Addis Ababa December 27, 1903
• "Ethiopia, Russia Ties”, Tagged:https://allafrica.com/stories/201803100033.html
• "Russia to rebuild former Soviet nuclear research facility in Ethiopia" https://borkena.com/2018/03/09/ethiopia-and-russia-reach-agreement-on-nuclear-power development/
• "Russia, Ethiopia preparing intergovernmental agreements on military cooperation", Russian Politics & Diplomacy March 09, 2018, see more at http://tass.com/politics/993354
• . Press release of Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov's opening remarks at Russia-Africa Public Forum, Moscow, October 22, 2018, see more at http://www.mid.ru/en/
• US Policy toward Ethiopia, Study Pursuant to NSSM 248, December 1976
• . US-Ethiopia Relations – When We Flip the Script https://diretube.com/play/2018/03/0 On Mar 9, 2018


web page
• . https://newafricanmagazine.com/news-analysis/history/chinas-long-history-africa/
• . http://www.future-agricultures.org/research/
• . https://www.cnn.com/style/article/addis-ababa-china-construction-style/index.html
• . https://qz.com 26th November 2018
• . https://www.satellitetoday.com January 28th, 2019
• . http://www.chinadaily.com.cn, 2019-01-02 07:52
• . http://www.mfa.gov.et/
• . https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng
• . www.state.gov
• https://history.state.gov/countries/ethiopia
• . http://lcweb2.loc.gov/
• .https://uca.edu/politicalscience/dadmproject/sub-saharan-africa-region/ethiopia-1942-present/
Published October 23, 2019
Keywords
  • Ethiopia, Diplomatic relation; Bilateral relation; Treaty and Foreign Affair.
How to Cite
[1]
N. H. Yeheys, “The impulses and outlook of China, Russia and U.S. relation in the Horn of Africa; the case of Ethiopia”, sshj, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 1557-1570, Oct. 2019.

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References

References
• Alex De Waal, (2012) The theory and practice of Meles Zenawi, African Affairs, 112/446, 148–155
• Deborah Bräutigam Xiaoyang Tang, An Overview of Chinese Agricultural and Rural Engagement in Ethiopia, IFPRI Discussion Paper 01185 May 2012, Development Strategy and Governance Division, International Food Policy Research Institute.
• Dawit Alemu, Seth Cook and Qi Gubo(2015)Chinese Agricultural Expertise Support in Ethiopia: Approaches, Motives and Perspectives, China and Brazil in African Agriculture working paper series: http://www.future-agricultures.org/research/
• David H. Shinn, (2014) Ethiopia and China: Two Former Empires Connect in the 20th Century, Russian Academy of Sciences: Institute for African Studies,13th International Conference of Africanists
• Felix Müller, Model transfer in the making: changing development strategies of and expectations towards, the state in Ethiopia and Ghana, Working Papers of the Priority Programme 1448 of the German Research Foundation. 15, Leipzig and Halle 2015.
• Henok Tibebu,(2017) The Ethiopian Herald,Https://allafrica.com/stories/201702180271.
• James L. (1987) Time for action against Mengistu's Ethiopia, Report from the middle east; see more at https://www.heritage.org
• Jean Pierre Cabestan (2012) China and Ethiopia: Authoritarian affinities and economic cooperation, No.2012/4. China Perspectives.
• Johan Burger, The return of Russia to Africa, see more at https://www.herald.co.zw/the-return-of-russia-to-africa/
• Meles Zenawi, African development: Dead ends and new beginnings, unpublished Mater thesis draft
• Møller, B. (2009). The Horn of Africa and the US "War on Terror" with special Focus on Somalia. Aalborg: Institut for Historie, Internationale Studier on Samfundsforhold, Aalborg Universitet.
• Mehari Taddele Maru (2015), The secret to Ethiopia's counterterrorism success see more at https://www.aljazeera.com/
• Seifudein Adem, "China in Ethiopia: Diplomacy and Economics of Sino-Optimism," African Studies, Review, Vol. 55, No. 1, April 2012, pp. 143-160.
• Shel Arensen, (2009) Russian Officer with King Menelik's Army see more @ http://oldafricamagazine.com/russian-officer-with-kingmeneliks-army/
• Teshome A, Meles's development paradigm and its impact on economic transformation in Ethiopia
• Theodore M. Vestal (2009) The Lion of Judah at Camelot: U. S. Foreign Policy towards
Ethiopia as Reflected in the Second State Visit of Emperor Haylä Selassé I to the United States Proceedings of the 16th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, Trondheim
• Thomas P. Ofcansky and LaVerle Berry(eds) (1991) Ethiopia, a country study, Federal Research Division Library of Congress, Kessinger Publishing
• Thomas P. Ofcansky and LaVerle Berry(eds) (1991) Ethiopia, a country study, Federal Research Division Library of Congress, Kessinger Publishing
• The Reporter (2018) Ethiopia and Russia: kindred spirits, INTERVIEW with Vsevolod Tkachenko Ambassador of Russian Federation to Ethiopia, see more at https://www.thereporterethiopia.com/article/ethiopia-and-russia-kindred-spirits,Ethiopia and Russia: kindred spirits,7 April 2018
• Wolbert G.C. Smidt, (2001) Achinese in Nubian and Abyssinian Kingdom (8thcenntury)DOI; 10.4000/cy.33 http://journals.openedition.org/cy/33
• . Yeheys Nardos Hawaz (2018) China's development through the eyes of the other world: The Western and Africa, studying in China my perspective on reform and oping up international student forum
Report and press release
• Country Reports on Terrorism 2017, U.S. Department of State, see more at www.state.gov
• Cooperation with Ethiopia, The diplomatic relations between Russia and Ethiopia date back to 1898, http://roe.ru/eng/export/efiopiya/
• Ethiopia, COMMERCE, Treaty signed at Addis Ababa December 27, 1903
• "Ethiopia, Russia Ties”, Tagged:https://allafrica.com/stories/201803100033.html
• "Russia to rebuild former Soviet nuclear research facility in Ethiopia" https://borkena.com/2018/03/09/ethiopia-and-russia-reach-agreement-on-nuclear-power development/
• "Russia, Ethiopia preparing intergovernmental agreements on military cooperation", Russian Politics & Diplomacy March 09, 2018, see more at http://tass.com/politics/993354
• . Press release of Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov's opening remarks at Russia-Africa Public Forum, Moscow, October 22, 2018, see more at http://www.mid.ru/en/
• US Policy toward Ethiopia, Study Pursuant to NSSM 248, December 1976
• . US-Ethiopia Relations – When We Flip the Script https://diretube.com/play/2018/03/0 On Mar 9, 2018


web page
• . https://newafricanmagazine.com/news-analysis/history/chinas-long-history-africa/
• . http://www.future-agricultures.org/research/
• . https://www.cnn.com/style/article/addis-ababa-china-construction-style/index.html
• . https://qz.com 26th November 2018
• . https://www.satellitetoday.com January 28th, 2019
• . http://www.chinadaily.com.cn, 2019-01-02 07:52
• . http://www.mfa.gov.et/
• . https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng
• . www.state.gov
• https://history.state.gov/countries/ethiopia
• . http://lcweb2.loc.gov/
• .https://uca.edu/politicalscience/dadmproject/sub-saharan-africa-region/ethiopia-1942-present/
Published October 23, 2019
Keywords
  • Ethiopia, Diplomatic relation; Bilateral relation; Treaty and Foreign Affair.
How to Cite
[1]
N. H. Yeheys, “The impulses and outlook of China, Russia and U.S. relation in the Horn of Africa; the case of Ethiopia”, sshj, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 1557-1570, Oct. 2019.
No Supplimentary Material available for this article.
Published October 23, 2019
Keywords
  • Ethiopia, Diplomatic relation; Bilateral relation; Treaty and Foreign Affair.
How to Cite
[1]
N. H. Yeheys, “The impulses and outlook of China, Russia and U.S. relation in the Horn of Africa; the case of Ethiopia”, sshj, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 1557-1570, Oct. 2019.

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Published October 23, 2019
Keywords
  • Ethiopia, Diplomatic relation; Bilateral relation; Treaty and Foreign Affair.
How to Cite
[1]
N. H. Yeheys, “The impulses and outlook of China, Russia and U.S. relation in the Horn of Africa; the case of Ethiopia”, sshj, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 1557-1570, Oct. 2019.

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  • Nardos Hawaz Yeheys

  • Published October 23, 2019
    Keywords
    • Ethiopia, Diplomatic relation; Bilateral relation; Treaty and Foreign Affair.
    How to Cite
    [1]
    N. H. Yeheys, “The impulses and outlook of China, Russia and U.S. relation in the Horn of Africa; the case of Ethiopia”, sshj, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 1557-1570, Oct. 2019.