Influence of Breed, Age and Sex of Indigenous Cattle on Sensory Parameters of raw and cooked Beef Meat at Peshawar

  • Naeem Ullah, Assar Ali Shah, Mudasir Nazar, Gulfam Ali, Irfan Ullah Khan, Abdur Rahman, Niaz Ali Kaka, Wazha Mugabe, Iftikhar Ali Shah Department of Livestock Management and Animal Breeding & Genetics, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences. The University of Agriculture, Peshawar-Pakistan


The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of breed, age and sex of indigenous cattle for beef quality parameters of raw & cooked beef. A total of 288 beef samples were collected from 36 cattle. Two breeds of cattle (Dajal and Dhanni) were selected having three age groups (i.e. group 1(12 to 24 months), group 2 (24 to 48 months) & group 3 > 48 months. Each age group includes animals of both sexes. Beef samples were collected from animals, which were pre indentified in the stockyard of slaughter house, one day before their slaughter. Raw samples were checked for, color, marbling and texture. Two hundred and eighty eight cooked beef samples were evaluated for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, taste, aroma, cooked color and overall liking. Data was analysed using Mann-Whitney test for breed and sex, where as Kruskal Wallis test for age and Spearmen’s correlation was used among various parameters in SPSS version 20. The age and breed had a significant effect (P<0.05) on sensory parameters. Sex did not show significant effect (P>0.05) on sensory parameters. Dajal was 16% more tender than Dhanni. Result indicates that Dajal cattle were 17% more flavored as compare to Dhanni. Among three age groups of cattle, age group one was 25% more tender than age group two, similarly age group two was 21% more tender than age group three. Between two breeds of cattle female found 3% tender than male. Also female found 6% more flavor than male. Beef tenderness is positively correlated with beef juiciness and overall liking and the relationship was significant. It was concluded that Dajal was found better than Dhanni in respect of sensory parameters. Among three age groups, age group one was more tender, juicer while age group two have higher flavor, taste and aroma. Female found better in sensory parameters but no significant influence was seen in both breeds. Dajal cattle of two-three years may be placed in fattening program for better quality meat availability to the public and for export.Keywords: Dajal, Dhanni, Beef tenderness, flavor, cattle age